The eruption of the Cumbre Vieja volcano on La Palma has put these geological structures back into the spotlight in Spain. The last great magma outflow to the surface since 1971 (Teneguía) that, like then, has caused chaos, unease and doubts about why these mountains of fire are awakening. However, and strangely enough, in the Iberian Peninsula one should be more used to volcanic terms and what this implies, since there are an infinity of formations distributed throughout the Spanish geography.
That the Canary Islands are directly influenced by the volcanic origin is something that practically no one can miss. This is represented by the main icon of the region, Mount Teide, whose 3,715 meters cover one of the most dangerous active volcanoes in the world . Also the fact that in Lanzarote is the Timanfaya , also active, within a list of more than 300 volcanic cones.
However, it is La Palma who runs the most danger and this is what it is representing these days under the lava of Cumbre Vieja . It also did so during the Teneguía eruption just 50 years ago, when this volcano was expelling magma to the surface for 24 days . Finally, it is worth highlighting within all the Canarian formations, the Tagoro (El Hierro) that in 2011 woke up but without great risk for the population due to the fact that it is underwater.
A whole series of structures that are not unique to the lucky islands. Since the Iberian Peninsula, and more specifically the south and this Spanish , are also influenced by the volcanic formation millions of years ago, there are about 400 cones, all inactive or asleep (that is, their last activity has been in the last 10,000 years), which represent a unique and often unknown landscape.
In the region of La Garrotxa , under the Natural Park that receives the same name, there are 38 volcanoes spread throughout its area. With Santa Margarida as the most representative (it last erupted 11,000 years ago) since there is a hermitage in its crater, Croscat is the youngest and largest in the entire Peninsula.
La Canya, D’Aiguanegra, Repàs, Repassot, Cairat, Claperols, Puig de l’Ós, Puig de l’Estany, Puig de Bellaire, Gengí, Bac de les Tries, Bisaroques, Garrinada, Montsacopa, Montolivet, Can Barraca, Puig Astrol, Pujalós, Puig de la Garsa, Cabrioler, Puig Jordà, Puig de la Costa, Puig de Martinyà, Puig de Mar, Comadega, Puig Subià, Rocanegra, Simon, Pla sa Ribera, Sant Jordi, Racó, Fontpobra, Tuta de Colltort , Can Tià, Sant Marc, Puig Roig, Traiter, Les Medes, La Crosa de Sant Dalmai, Puig d’Adri, El Rocàs, Clot de l’Omera, Puig de la Banya del Boc, Granollers de Rocacorba and Puig Montner complete the list of the almost 50 inactive volcanic formations that exist throughout Girona.
Only two volcanoes can be seen in this territory, although there are records of volcanic stones in several Valencian towns. In the Columbretes Islands (in front of Castellón) is the youngest in the region, whose crater resides in the tiny Illa Grossa. In addition, the Cofrentes volcano (Cerro Agrás, Valencia) is the most representative because although it is inactive, the little activity that it still has is used for the spas in the area.
Also with volcanic formation present, in Cartagena there are five islands (Barón, Perdiguera, Ciervo, Rondella and Sujeto) with volcanic origin. However, the most representative of the region is the Barqueros (between Murcia and Mula).
Cataloged as “a place of Spanish geological interest of international relevance”, the list is also completed by El Farallón, El Carmolí, Calnegre, Monteblanco, Cabezo Beaza, Cabezo de la Fraila, Cabezo Ventura, Cabezo Negro, Pico Cebolla, Los Pérez, and Aljorra.
In El Campo de Calatrava , an area of 5,000 square kilometers, there are around 300 volcanic formations. All asleep for more than 5,000 years, the oldest volcano is El Morrón while the youngest is El Columba .
For its part, among the most representative structures of this hundred are the Laguna de la Posadilla , formed when the lava comes into contact with the groundwater, or the volcanic massif of Calatrava, which registers several of the cones in the region. Michos, La Alberquilla, Hoya de Cervera, La Bienvenida, Peñarroya, Hoya del Mortero, Cerro de los Santos, Piedrabuena or Alhorín complete the list of the most significant.
Finally, the Andalusian province of Almería also has volcanic records in the Cabo de Gata area . Formed by the contact of magma from the Alboran Sea, this area is the most complex volcanic complex in the entire Peninsula.
With structures both underwater and on the surface, the lava domes of El Fraile and Fraile Chico and the Calderas del Plomo and Majada Redonda are the most renowned. In addition, Cerro Gallardo, Morrón de los Genoveses, Cerro de la Testa, Cerro de la Vela Blanca, Cerro de la Revancha, Morrón de Mateo, Cóbdar, Cabezo María, Cerro del Hoyazo and Cerro Negro complete the list of these formations from Almeria.